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The Pandora Charms http://www.merritton.ca 'father of contemporary dentistry' http://www.merritton.ca/pandora/pandora-bracelets.html Abstractthe robust development the modern practice of dentistry can be traced to the work and life of pierre fauchard, a french dentist professionist who worked in the first half of the eighteenth century.Fauchard was a really gifted and talented practitioner, who introduced many designs to dentistry.In a huge break with the tradition of the time, he shared his knowledge and methods with colleagues, and published these in the first rigorous dental textbook.This paper reviews his life and share to modern dentistry.Top of pageintroductionif we reflect on the advances in dentist made over the past four centuries, it is clear that the most important contributions to the development of our profession were made by a small number of unusually gifted practitioners.Pre eminent particularly was pierre fauchard(16781761), Who is widely acclaimed as the 'Father of recent Dentistry'.1 He was concerned by the ignorance of many of his co-Worker, and deplored the selfishness of the more able among them who jealously guarded the secrets of their clinical steps.In1728 he published a thorough textbook, the chirurgien dentiste, detailing the contemporary state of dental knowledge and making his own findings.2Le Chirurgien Dentiste swept away the old attitudes of secrecy reliable an era of openness and scientific evaluation.As consequence of this work, france became recognised as the top centre for dental excellence.His ideas took root in north america and profoundly influenced the introduction of dentistry there.In status and commemoration of his r the pierre fauchard academy was founded over 60 years ago.3 The Academy continues to promote the tradition of professionalism, reliability, altruism which he established.Adolescence and trainingfew details of fauchard's youth are known.The surname is quite rare and in all likelihood derives from a nickname.The eponymous ancestor may have been experienced in the use of the medieval weapon called a fauchard which consisted of a curved blade attached to a2 m long wooden pole.Pierre fauchard appeared in brittany in1678.His family does not have the symptoms of been wealthy and his schooling not up to the best standards of the day.1 When he was about15 years old he began training as a surgeon in french Navy under the tutelage of Surgeon Major Alexandre Poteleret, Who had a selected interest in diseases of the mouth.1 Fauchard held him in high admiration.While preparing at sea, fauchard observed many oral diseases which include scurvy, which was very common back then and not only among seafarers.4 Readers not really acquainted with the case reports of those days should consider how familiar conditions like a periapical abscess or a fractured jaw might progress without the benefits of practical advice, Surgical input or modern therapeutics.Add to these drawbacks of malnutrition, poor health, inadequate accommodation and incorrect treatment, and we begin to understand what fauchard encountered during his long career.Many years later, fauchard left the navy and began doing its job a dentist.1 It is unfamiliar why he made this decision.Recognising the inadequacies of his training he read widely and studied the crafts from which he might adapt techniques and instruments.These crafts placed watch making, jewellery the making of and enamelling.5 This early focus on what would nowadays be termed continuing dental education became a lifelong passion for Fauchard.Dentistry at the time of fauchardthe standards of dental care were primitive in fauchard's time.There were no formal courses and no formal regulatory bodies.6 There were few books as regards to dentistry, Although more and more dealing with general surgery did contain some useful pieces of dental relevance.7 Despite these problems, There were probably more dental practices in pre industrial Europe than is generally realised.It is impossible to accurately identify the number of dental offices, but the diocese of norwich in england was any type of those that did issue licences to dentists, and between1700 and1720 a total of24 individuals received licences to apply 'drawing teeth'.8Some patients could afford the expertise of general surgeons with a special interest in teeth, But the general public relied on toothpullers who often attended at xafss and fairs.Although these were probably more well meaning and caring than they are generally portrayed, they were often regarded with suspicion and some were with out a doubt rogues and charlatans.6Fauchard's life and practiceHaving left the navy blue in1700, Fauchard around his practice in the university town of Angers in Western France.1 His unrivaled competency, Conscientiousness and scientific approach earned him a brilliant reputation, Attracting worrying patients who journeyed great distances to see him.Nineteen months later, he verified practice as a 'chirurgien dentiste'(Operating doctor dentist), The first one to use this title, At repent des Fosses St.Germain(Also referred to as the rue de la com francaise), In the or perhaps Circle, Venice.Eighteenth century paris was accepted as the centre of learning and enlightenment of europe.Quickly recognised as a dentist of unrivaled skill and acumen, his advice and talents were regularly in demand by some of the city's most proficient surgeons.His practice was very prosperous, gaining the more elite and select patients.Around1729, fauchard gotten to you're wedding elisabeth chemin, small of a high ranking public servant in rennes.Five years later they bought the small attractive chateau of grandmesnil at bur sur yvette south of paris.1).While the house still stands, the interior has been extensively renovated over the last and only the staircase remains from fauchard's time(Fig.2).A bust of pierre fauchard still stands in the lands of the chateau(Fig.3).The fauchard's city house was in the rue des cordeliers in paris.Pierre and elisabeth had one toddler, jean baptiste, who had a varied career consist of law, acting and training them in. Fauchard died in1761 and was entombed in Paris, Close to his flat.He was been successful in his practice by his brother in law and pupil, monsieur duchemin.1Figure1: Outside of Pierre Fauchard's residence at Chateau Grandmesnil, Captured pics of in2001Full size image(32 kilobytes)'Le Chirurgien Dentiste'To encourage greater education and increase in the dental profession, Fauchard publicized 'Le Chriurgien Dentiste ou Trait des Dents'('The expert Dentist or Treatise on the Teeth') In london in1728.2 Comprising two volumes of over 800 pages including many pictures, Fauchard shared his considerable knowledge and findings with colleagues and students, Describing his techniques with extraordinary clarity and detail.Many of his key points were radical for practice of that time.He advised the seating of patients for dental schemes, while the normal approach was to lay the patient on the floor.He was among those who dismissed the employment of worms in teeth as the causative agents of dental decay, and he coined companies 'dental caries'.He demonstrated the existence of roots on deciduous teeth, which was not readily accepted at that moment.He was the first practitioner to emphasise the need for a sound knowledge of the preclinical sciences in the delivery of dental care.This openness was unique once, when knowledge and methods were valuable property and jealously guarded by practitioners. Many of Fauchard's findings are as relevant today as they were in1728.He condemned the reckless removal of primary molars, understanding it caused drifting of the permanent dentition, but he advised removing deciduous teeth when this was warranted to prevent malocclusion in the permanent dentition.Fauchard is undoubtedly one of the world's first orthodontic specialists.He urged caution in the benefit endodontic reamers, warning against breakage and ingesting, valuable advice still relevant to modern dentist.Dentist insurers regularly report the incidence of claims for swallowed endodontic instruments and the lack of defence for such negligence.9 value of the relationship between systemic and oral disease is highlighted in his work.Fauchard adopted a scientific approach to dentist.He refuted the opinions of self styled 'experts' and relied on his own observations of the success or cold of clinical techniques and became a harbinger of 'evidence based dentistry'.One hundred and three diseases of the teeth and mouth are thoroughly described in his book, an amazing catalogue for any textbook of the time.The classical meaning of pyorrhoea was so thorough that for a time it was called 'fauchard's disease'.Fauchard was the first to record anything that would be helpful to a student of dentistry in the making of complete dentures.His story of crown and bridgework is primitive, but the basics are still accepted today.Obturators were originally tagged by ambrose par(The 'father of contemporary surgery'), But Fauchard introduced new and innovative designs that greatly improved the total well being for those patients unfortunate enough to require such treatment.10Fauchard discussed every aspect of dentistry:Oral method, orthodontics, periodontics, prosthodontics, as well as the base sciences of anatomy, pathology additionally pharmacology.11 A second edition of the work was launched in1746, As well as a third edition in1786,25 long period after his death. The first German interpretation appeared in1733, But the first English interpretation was not published until1946.12Fauchard's goal was achieved with the guide of the first edition.His recommendations were accepted and colleagues began to share information freely along side each other. The Pierre Fauchard AcademyThe Pierre Fauchard Academy is a worldwide dental organisation that was founded in1936.3 Among its objectives is to recognise and acknowledge the more dedicated and scrupulous dentists by inviting them to Fellowship in the Academy.There are about 7, 000 pfa fellows which Pandora Beads With Stones represents 42 countries worldwide.The academy ensures that fauchard's legacy to dentistry is sustained by sponsoring Pandora Bracelets Sale mentorship programmes and fostering the sharing of info among colleagues.It maintains a 'hall of fame' which honours the most famous dentists in the of our profession.Awards for unbelievable achievement in dentistry are presented annually.The academy is very mindful of its r in encouraging students and presents a prestigious undergraduate certificate of merit to one student each year in every participating dental school.Along with the pfa foundation, it offers scholarships or grants, funds research and training courses, and supports a wide range of charitable activities.Top of pageconclusionpierre fauchard is recognised for introducing into dentistry the principles of openness and co operation that generated progress towards better standards of dental care through rigorous scientific enquiry.He eliminated the secrecy that had beforehand stifled its growth.He was a man of astute paying attention and based his treatment plans and clinical techniques on a sound analysis of similar cases.His work had a major influence on the roll-Out of dentistry and is commemorated in the ethos of the academy which bears his name.A fitting tribute is due to chapin a.Harris, the good american dentist who helped establish the first us dental college at baltimore, md, who wrote 'considering circumstances under which he lived, fauchard should be remembered as a noble pioneer and sure founder of dental science.That his business was crude was due to his times, that it was scientific and somewhat superior was due to himself. '13Top of pageAcknowledgementsThe assistance of Mr Evan Carr in producing Figure3 is gratefully appreciated.